HIV/AIDS, Security and Conflict: New Realities, New Responses

with Dana Huber and ASCI co-chairs Georg Frerks and Souleymane M'Boup

French Version | Spanish Version

This is the final report of the AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative(ASCI) that was convened by the Social Science Research Council (New York) and Clingendael Institute (The Hague) between 2005 and 2009, with support from UNAIDS. ASCI is a global research initiative aimed at informing policy and programming by strengthening the evidence base and addressing critical gaps in knowledge in the fields of HIV and AIDS and security.

Coauthored by Alex de Waal, Jennifer F. Klot, Manjari Mahajan, with Dana Huber and ASCI co-chairs Georg Frerks and Souleymane M'Boup, the report delivers four critical messages:

  1. HIV and AIDS pose diverse threats to human security and to international and national security.
  2. Security institutions and situations of insecurity and crisis influence patterns of HIV risk.
  3. Post-conflict transitions reshape and, in some cases, exacerbate HIV risks and impacts.
  4. HIV prevention and AIDS care and treatment are poorly integrated with security sector reforms, humanitarian assistance, peacekeeping and post-conflict peacebuilding.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABBREVIATIONS
PREFACE
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
BACKGROUND

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 The securitization of HIV and AIDS
1.1.1 Threats to international security
1.1.2 International peace support operations
1.1.3 Human security
1.2 The gender dimensions of HIV and AIDS, security and conflict
1.3 New realities, new responses

2. STATE FRAGILITY AND HIV/AIDS
2.1 What is fragility?
2.2 The reciprocal impacts of HIV and governance
2.2.1 Local governance and HIV/AIDS
2.2.2 Rethinking democracy and HIV/AIDS
2.3 Fragile communities and HIV/AIDs
2.4 The gender dimensions of state fragility and HIV risk
2.5 State fragility conclusions

3. THE SECURITY SECTOR AND HIV/AIDS
3.1 HIV and AIDS and the Military
3.1.1 HIV rates among soldiers
3.1.2 The operational impacts of HIV and AIDS
3.1.3 Military sexual trauma
3.1.4 Supporting military families
3.2 HIV and AIDs policy and planning in the uniformed services
3.2.1 Command-centred approaches to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment and care
3.2.2 The mandatory testing controversy
3.2.3 Harmonization of civilian and military policies
3.2.4 HIV/AIDS and other uniformed services
3.3 HIV and AIDs and peace support operations
3.3.1 Command-centred approaches to HIV and AIDS in peace support operations
3.3.2 Treatment policies among peacekeepers
3.3.3 Regional cooperation in HIV/AIDS response in the context of peace support operations
3.3.4 Preventing sexual violence and HIV risk in peacekeeping and peacebuilding
3.4 HIV and law enforcement
3.4.1 HIV within police services
3.4.2 Policing HIV
3.5 Security sector conclusions

4. HIV/AIDS IN CONFLICT, CRISIS AND POST-CONFLICT TRANSITION
4.1 Recontextualizing HIV risk
4.1.1 HIV and emergencies: The macro- and micro-environments
4.1.2 The conflict-HIV nexus
4.1.3 HIV and food emergencies
4.2 Sexual violence and HIV transmission risk
4.2.1 The physiology of sexual violence
4.2.2 The social science of sexual violence
4.2.3 Sexual violence and HIV risk in the aftermath of conflict
4.2.4 Modelling sexual violence as a risk factor of HIV
4.2.5 Implications for policies and programmes
4.3 HIV risk in post-conflict transitions
4.3.1 Provisioning gaps in health services
4.3.2 Psychosocial consequences: Gendered patterns of difference
4.3.3 HIV and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration
4.4 Conflict, crisis and post-conflict transition conclusions

5. CONCLUSION
5.1 Overview
5.2 Policy recommendations
5.3 A new agenda for action

ANNEX
REFERENCES

Title
HIV/AIDS, Security and Conflict: New Realities, New Responses
Author
de Waal, Alex, Klot, Jennifer and Mahajan, Manjari
Published
Social Science Research Council, September 2009
Citation
de Waal, Alex, Klot, Jennifer and Mahajan, Manjari, HIV/AIDS, Security and Conflict: New Realities, New Responses (Social Science Research Council, September 2009).