Richard Alemdjrodo is a lecturer at the Faculty of Law, University of Lomé, Togo. He holds a PhD in Law from the University of Saarland, Germany. He also held a postdoctoral position at the University of Montreal, Canada, and was a research fellow at the University of Paris V, René Descartes. His research and teaching interests include international law, law and society, trade, and international security. As an APN fellow, his research focused on whether past ECOWAS interventions and peacekeeping efforts in Liberia and Sierra Leone—and possible future ones—without the prior authorization of the United Nations represent a major paradigm shift in international law. Understanding whether there has been a major paradigm shift in international law, and the contexts within which it occurred—or is occurring—is critical for conflict management and peacebuilding in Africa. He is a 2016 recipient of the Social Science Research Council’s African Peacebuilding Network’s Individual Research Grant.