East African countries are being exploited by organized criminal networks who use maritime trafficking to move their illicit goods. Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique are used as transit zones for Afghan Opium and ivory is leaving the East African coast for Asia. These illicit activities further destabilize the East African region which already has high levels of poverty, corruption and state fragility. The main questions which the research will seek to answer will be divided into three parts: PART 1: How to conceptually understand the rise in maritime trafficking on the East African Rim. PART 2: What is the impact of maritime trafficking on East Africa and how does the impact differ across the ivory and heroin markets? PART 3: What are the most appropriate responses to maritime trafficking and does the response to piracy offer a model? Interviews will confirm the validity of my findings. Human trafficking was included in the research proposal, but after further research it was decided by my supervisor and myself that is was not suited to the research question.