This study examines co-existence and conflicts over land use between pastoralists and farmers in Kiteto district from 1945 to 2010. The study will concentrate on pastoralists and farmers in Kiteto District in Tanzania. Previous studies in the areas reported only on conflicts over land use (Mbonile; 2006, Mwamfupe;1997). They have ignored the dual nature of the relationship among the two groups. The studies have generalized the causes of land conflicts without showing their evolution.The scholars give little attention to the efficacy on government responses on land use conflicts. This study will examine the co-existence and conflicts over land use between pastoralists and farmers. It will investigate the dynamic of land use conflicts. The study will assess the efficacy of government responses in resolving land conflicts. It will employ qualitative approach based on archival and oral sources. However, I will cross-check information from these sources to detect any elements of prejudice.