I will write a book that compare physicians’ financial conflicts of interest in Japan, France and U.S. and compare how medical professions, markets, and states exacerbate such conflicts or help address them. This study extends analysis from my book on the U.S., Medicine, Money and Morals: Physicians' Conflicts of Interest, and my article" Physicians' Conflicts of Interest in Japan and the U.S.", and builds on my preliminary work on France. My qualitative research would 1) document the kind of physicians' conflicts in Japan and France; 2) analyze the response of states, medical professions and independent associations to these conflicts; and 3) compare how these issues have evolved in Japan, France and the U.S. and explain the implications for public policy. I will interview policymakers, physicians, lawyers and insurers; review legal and policy documents and conduct legal, political and ethical analysis. A board of experts will advise me.