The ability of the U.S. and Japan to translate their massive public investments in scientific research into increased economic productivity and quality of life for their people depends upon technology transfer. Technology transfer practices in university, government and other nonprofit laboratories appear to differ substantially in the U.S. and Japan. This study will compare the laws; government policies; laboratory administrative procedures; and attitudes of scientists, laboratory administrators and government and corporate officials; that shape technology transfer practices in Japan and the U.S. Furthermore, it will analyze the effectiveness of technology transfer practices in both countries to promote public-private sector research collaborations, development of useful knowledge and products, and economic productivity. It will also analyze the extent to which effective technology transfer practices encourage increased corporate and government support for research in nonprofit laboratories. Finally, this study will examine the international dimensions of technology transfer practices; in particular, how the U.S., Japan, and other leading scientific countries can balance concerns that (a) the benefits from publicly funded research accrue, at least in part, to the country that funds the research and (b) the benefits from free international scientific exchange not be stifled by restrictive technology transfer policies.