This project addresses the problem of citizenship and citizenship education by conducting comparative studies in the U.S., France and Japan. Although civic education is of crucial importance to democracies, industrial societies now in the process of transformation, typically that related to globalization, have more and more difficulties in offering a clear vision of an ideal citizen. In this instance, the question of how citizens should be educated becomes highly controversial. I will examine the case of America where bitter controversy was generated among advocates of various political positions, together with the case of France where individualism was so strong among the postwar generation that civic education has been only recently reestablished and compared these with the case of Japan where the citizenship education tends to be reduced into a nationalistic education format. My research aims at providing theoretical basics to the educational policy and deepening our understanding of democracy.