This research will examine two communities, one in Japan and the other in the USA, to study the exchange of labor between the married women and senior members of the community. In Japan, the research will focus on the corporate society for elders (koureisha seikatsu kyodo kumiai) in Mie Prefecture and study how such a system is supported by the existing local kinship and neighborhood networks. The research will also explore whether such exchanges of labor exist among Japanese-Americans in Seattle, Washington, USA, where such kinship/ neighborhood network is expected to be stronger than in other American cities. The research explores whether, how and where essential domestic labor, including the child-minding and nursing of ailing family members, are met, thus focusing on the local network outsourcing of domestic labor as a form of immaterial property which may also provide improved quality of life for those in their old age. This study deals with the problems common to industrialized societies such as gender and property relations, and the provision of nursing to the elderly in an aging society by labor exchange and community networking.