Through my dissertation I will explore the impact of different types of land tenure systems on agricultural productivity. I plan to utilize two unique data sets gathered from rural household surveys in China to test the hypothesis that land with more secure tenure rights is more productive. I will also attempt to identify the mechanisms through which land tenure security might affect agricultural productivity. My dissertation will offer the first through econometric examination of these data sets, and will be one of the first works to use longitudinal data analysis to explore the links between tenure systems and agricultural productivity. This fellowship will allow me to work with Chinese research scholars to match household observations from two surveys to form the first longitudinal data set available on land tenure issues in China. The results of my work will provide important evidence in the worldwide debate on the links between land tenure security and agricultural productivity, and will offer information which can be used to develop more efficient agricultural policies in China and other transition economies.