Ghana is an escapee from the mineral wealth curse that plaques the West African sub-region. This relative peace is threatened by a non-traditional security problem of illegal gold mining which continues to claim lives through pit cave-ins and mercury poisoning. It also jeopardises the environment and social order. The continuous engagement in illegal mining and the disregard for the Ghana Minerals and Mining Act, (Act 703) 2006 has been associated with soaring youth unemployment. Official statistics, however, indicate low levels of unemployment. This study seeks to examine how illegal gold mining interacts with peace, security, sustainable development and youth unemployment in Ghana through a human centred qualitative research approach to peace and security. It is postulated that without a comprehensive enquiry and understanding into the nexus of these relations for the purpose of addressing them, the problems of unemployment and illegal gold mining will jeopardise Ghana peace and development gains.