What explains the great variation in the extractive capacities of late developing, semi-industrialized states? From a fiscal sociological perspective, I will consider how national-level political coalitions formed during critical junctures in a country's development help to create nationally distinctive and enduring institutions which link state and society. The varied ways in which national identity is politicized influences the group's propensity to sacrifice for the provision of collective goods. In my critical case study of South Africa, I will gather data on the changing character of nationalism over-time, and sub-national variations in the expression of such identity as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of the state's extractive capacity. During my field work, I will conduct in-depth interviews and archival research, and gather relevant statistical data on individual attitudes and state finances. Beyond establishing broad correlations, the research will attempt to establish a causal mechanism through detailed process tracing of the establishment of extractive institutions. Following the field research, additional hypotheses explaining cross-national variation will be tested with secondary research.