South Africa and Brazil are burdened with durable inequality and poverty a phenomenon that persists after two decades of democratization. Both countries have developed ambitious social policies aimed at addressing these challenges. This thesis seeks to answer the following question, (i) what social policies and programmes are being pursued by both South Africa and Brazil and what are the results? The thesis will compare South Africa and Brazil's social policy architecture in their evolution under the governance of the African National Congress (ANC) and the Partido dos Trabalhoes (PT, Workers Party). It further deploys insights of a political economy of institutions to understand the effects of these policies in both societies. This analysis should be read in a dynamic global context where Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs) and unconditional transfers alike have shaped the ANC's policy path, the Social Grant for the poor and the PT's Bolsa Familia culminating in a reinvigorated discussion and debate within the Global Social Policy architecture. The thesis advocates an institutional analysis to social policy where mechanisms of production, protection, and distribution are pivotal in addressing both countries socio-economic challenges. Research will be conducted in selected cites, in Johannesburg, Limpopo, Brasilia, Salvador, Sao Paolo, interviewing beneficiaries of the social welfare programs and policy makers.