Most studies on how land question leads to conflicts in Uganda have ignored those parts of the country that did not fall within the kingdom areas. It is on such a background that this study examines the relationship between lack of or inequality in access to land or insecurity of tenure in land relations and the emerging conflicts in the former districts of Bukedi and Bugisu in Eastern Uganda. It also explores on how the social and economic changes within the societies of Bukedi and Bugisu have affected on land-based livelihood activities to influence in the land related Socio- Political Conflicts in this area. It is our argument that there has been a growing land question in the areas of the former districts of Bukedi and Bugisu. One of the outcomes of this growing land question is the persistence of socio-political conflicts which have destabilised the rural economy and politics of former districts of Bukedi and Bugisu in Eastern Uganda. A qualitative historical approach has been adopted using both primary and secondary sources of information to analyse the relation between land and socio-political conflicts in the former districts of Bukedi and Bugisu. The study has been done in archives, research centres, libraries and in the districts of Mbale, Tororo, Budaka and Butaleja where interviews were done with key informants. A thematic analysis strategy as been employed to make meaning out of this information in order to write a thesis as an end result; a process that is now on going.