Contemporary presence of China in Africa has generated three broad arguments that speak to pessimism, optimism and caution. In most cases, Sino-Africa relations, which is political as well as economic, have the capacity of impacting the lives of Africans in multiple and sometimes contradictory ways. This research therefore aims to situate China's rising role in infrastructure development in Africa. Meanwhile, due to its "manifest destiny" or "Pax Nigeriana" it is expected that Nigeria (owing largely to its population, resource endowment and location) would lead efforts at ensuring peace, security and development in Africa. Yet infrastructure is a challenge in Nigeria just as in most African countries. Thus, with a study of Nigeria, this proposal interrogates two questions. First, what is the nature of China's soft and hard infrastructure diplomacy in Africa? Second, how does this intervention impact the lives of Africans in terms of peace, security and development?