This study focuses on regime types' human rights violation and conflict escalation in the Niger Delta. A scoping study of the literature on the Niger Delta reveals that no systematic study has been conducted on the extent to which regime types' human rights violation influenced the scale of violent conflict in the region. Consequently this study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by finding out if there is any difference between the extent to which human rights violation in military and democratic regimes influenced conflict escalation in the Niger Delta. It also seeks to ascertain if sustainable peace can be achieved in the Niger Delta without human rights protection. The study adopts a non- experimental research design using the multi-method research approach. This means that quantitative statistical analysis and qualitative approaches will be employed.