The study intends to examine the history of sugarcane plantation agriculture and its effects on the socio-economic development aspects in theory and practice under colonial and post-colonial era in the districts of Jinja and Mayuge. The research sites are the two districts of Jinja and Mayuge which are well known for sugar cane growing in Busoga sub-region. The study intends to find out why despite the extensive sugarcane plantation, the area still experiences high poverty level. The study will employ different methods of data collection like interviews, focus group discussions and use of documentary sources. Both primary and secondary sources will be used. The researcher will then compare information from the different sources and find the middle ground.