This study examines the history of land conflicts between peasants and pastoralists in Kiteto from 1945 to 2016. The study has been conducted in Kiteto district in Tanzania. Kiteto district has been affected by emerging land use conflicts between peasants and pastoralists which resulted into insecurity, frustrations, death and displacement of peasants and pastoralists. Scholars provided generalized information on Kiteto conflicts by focusing on land scarcity, population pressure and ineffectiveness of land tenure systems. Scholars have not addressed changes and continuity in the nature of land conflicts and the changing government responses in resolving them. Therefore, this study addresses the change and continuity of land conflicts. The study also investigates the changing government responses and their efficacies in resolving land conflicts. The study used qualitative approaches which are based on documentary, archival and oral sources. Both oral and archival sources have been cross-checked to detect some prejudice.