This thesis examines the way how competing claims for land rights have contributed to conflict in post-colonial Uganda with a case study of Kibaale district. It uses triangulated data, obtained through in-depth interviews with purposively sampled participants and from secondary sources. It examines the contentious issues of land rights in Kibaale district since 1962 and argues that the national and local political authorities have often manipulated the land rights for selfish political interests. Unlike what the current literature presents, my thesis demonstrates how the migration of peoples from within Uganda and from elsewhere resulted in high population pressure and contributed to conflict over land in Kibaale district. The study argues that the resumption of competitive electoral politics in 1996 gave way to highly political and sectarian expression of land rights' grievances which intensified the conflict in Kibaale district.