This critique of state assisted integration of female ex-combatants forms part of a preoccupation with understanding the greater marginalisation of women after wars of liberation where, it seems, even though "women fought side by side with men in the struggle …nationalism and political independence did not translate into particular feminist benefits for women" (Lyons, 2004: xxi-29). How have female ex-combatants been integrated into democratic South Africa? What processes has the state put in place for ex-combatants? What are the experiences of female ex-combatants in state-led processes of integration? What are female ex-combatant experiences in integration beyond the procedures provided by the state? To examine the female ex-combatant experiences of state led integration, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions will be conducted a sample of female ex-combatants from Mkhonto WeSizwe, Azanian People's Liberation Army throughout South Africa, and Amabutho paramilitary group in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.