The aim of the study is to carry out research on the political economy of biofuel production in Zimbabwe and South Africa. This entails looking at relevant legal, institutional and policy frameworks governing biofuel investments and development including production and utilization. The study will identify the biofuel producers involved in each country and examine the history of decision making by which these producers decided to invest. The research will examine how these producers have gone about producing biofuel and assess the consequences of their activities for different categories of people in areas affected by them. Issues to deal with loss of biodiversity, food security, and land rights will be investigated. Ethnography will be used in communities residing close to the biofuel projects to understand social and political relations emerging while interviews with biofuel producers, actors in the biofuel value chain will be used understand rational for investments and policy framework.