Although SCAP issued most of its orders and exercised power through the structure of the Japanese government, GHQ's control over the Japanese media was executed through direct rule. Via the G2's Civil Intelligence Section (CIS) and the Civil Censorship Detachment (CCD), GHQ exercised powerful censorship through confiscation and interception of information. In addition, GHQ, working through the Civil Communication Section, carried out guidance and educational activities. The ESS (Economic and Scientific Section) guided media through its control of paper and machine purchases. Together, these divisions constituted a complex machine that sought to analyze and control Japanese media.