The Congo research briefs are a joint publication of the Conflict Research Group (CRG) at Ghent University, the Social
Science Research Council (SSRC), the Study Group on Conflicts and Human Security (GEC-SH) at the University Research Center of Kivu (CERUKI), and the Governance-in-Conflict Network (GiC). These will provide concise and
timely summaries of ongoing research on the Congo that is being undertaken by CRG, SSRC, GEC-SH, GiC, and
The authors would like thank the researchers from GEC-SH who collected the data for the survey. They are:
Alice Mugoli Nalunva, Bienvenu Wakusomba Mukungilwa, Christian Chiza Kashurha, Damase Barhalikubagirwa
Buhendwa, Francine Mudunga Chakirwa, Irène Bahati, Jérémie Mapatano Byakumbwa, Stanislas Bisimwa Baganda,
and Lea Babite. We would like to also thank Philip Stickler who produced the maps featured in this brief.
Funding for the research for this brief from the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) through the
project “Follow the Money” (233823) financed by the Norwegian Research Council is gracefully acknowledged by
the authors. This material has been funded by UK aid from the UK government; however the views expressed do not
necessarily reflect the UK government’s official policies. This article also benefited from funding from the European
Research Council (ERC) Grant: State Formation Through the Local Production of Property and Citizenship (Ares
(2015)2785650 – ERC-2014-AdG – 662770-Local State).