In the third decade of the HIV and AIDS epidemic, women and particularly young women and girls have become a growing proportion of those affected and infected. What are the reasons for this growing “feminization” of the HIV and AIDS epidemic? Moreover, how and why is the response to the epidemic failing women? The articles and commentary in this book address the above questions with a particular focus on deeply rooted social, cultural and economic factors that are driving the epidemic. The authors especially interrogate the epistemological frameworks that are currently used to understand the epidemic and examine how these extant frameworks might be inadequate in capturing many gender-related dynamics.